Application of the Kvaal method with cone beam for the determination of a local formula for the age estimation of adult African melanoderma subject, CÃ´te d'Ivoire
Keywords:Cone Beam, Age estimation, Kvaal’s method, forensic identification, African melanoderma
Background: Age estimation by invasive dental methods is a destructive, costly and time-consuming approach. Whereas, age estimation methods using dental radiographs are simple, non-destructive and provide reliable information. Age estimation by the Kvaal radiographic method has proven to be a reliable method, but possible ethnic variations may limit its uses in other populations. The objective of this study was to reproduce the original Kvaal method with CBCT for the estimation of the age of the adult melano-African subject in Côte d'Ivoire, in order to propose an age estimation formula, specific to our study population, by taking into account the measurements of tooth and pulp ratios.
Methods:A cross-sectional study has used 102 radiographic data from a CBCT Planmeca® examination from a private dental clinic in Abidjan. It was data from subjects of at least 18 years of age. Dental measurements in length and width of the entire tooth, root and pulp were performed on maxillary central incisors and the different ratios were calculated according to the Kvaal method. The correlation between age and ratios was also assessed. Age estimated with the Kvaal formula was compared to the chronological age. A linear regression equation was developed in using ratios and age predictive factors to evaluate the accuracy of the Kvaal formula.
Results: In all, a total of 102 radiographs of from whom 102 subjects, 55 (53.9%) were females, were analyzed. The median age was 51 years (interquartile range [IQR] 41- 58). Using the Kvaal formula, the standard deviation of the estimated age was higher in the African melanoderma population compared to the Kvaal population. The new formula derived from that of Kvaal formula was developed and applied to our study population (Age = 84.7- 114.2 (M) - 29.4 (W - L) ± 12.11 years) gave a lower standard deviation but still different standard deviation from that of Kvaal.
Conclusion: Our study showed that the measurements made by Kvaal are reproducible with CBCT and there is a correlation between age and the dental parameters studied. However, the age estimation formula determined by Kvaal et al. is not valid for African melanoderma subjects living in Côte d'Ivoire,even if, the age predictive factors determined by Kvaal are valid for our study sample.